QIZHONG LABS provides consulting services in the following three areas. We have deep understanding to the problems in these areas and can offer expertise to design the systems and provide the equipment for projects. Should you have any question, please do not hesitate to contact us. Thank you!
Problems: Carbon dioxide released from Power plants accounts for more than half of the total carbon dioxide emission in the past. Coal-fired power plants also emit sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. The first two are responsible for acid_rain and smog while the third is the cause of global climate change. Current technology requires three separated systems to remove the gases from the flue gas individually, a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system for sulfur dioxide, a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Unit for nitrogen oxides and Carbon capture and storage (CCS) for carbon dioxide. To operate all three systems at the same time, a power plant might have to cut down its power output by as much as 25%. In addition, the current technology use chemicals to react with those pollutant gases to produce side tproducts. The chemicals and the side products are stored on site which can take up even more space and other resources. Technically, to complete remove the pollutant gases, the molar ratios of chemicals to pollutant gases have to be 1 . Greater than 1 will generate secondary pollution, while less than 1 will result in incomplete removal of the pollutant gases.
Solutions: QIZHONGLABS has developed an algae cultivation system to grow algae on industrial scales. The new system consists of arrays of High Density Photobioreactors (HDP) and offers many advantages over current chemical based systems. Four of them are given as follows.
1. HDP arrays can replace multiple systems
The comparison of current technology with HDP arrays is given in Table 1.
|Pollutants To Be Removed||Current Technology||New Technology|
|Sulfur Oxide||Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD)||High Density Photobioreactor Arrays|
|Nitrogen Oxides||Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)|
|Carbon Dioxide||Carbon capture|
2. HDP is more cost-effective than selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system
Table 2 shows the comparison of the cost to remove nitrogen oxides using HDP arrays and SCR in an example power plant.
|Features||HDP system||SCR system||HDP-SCR|
|Useful by-products||Algal Biomass||No||Useful|
|Environmental impact||No||2% Ammonia leakage||Helpful|
|Nitrogen removal (%)||100||90||10|
|Total Capital Investment (TCI) ($)||1,303,000||38,239,160||-36,936,160|
|Annual direct costs ($)||75,436||1,109,878||-1,034,442|
|Annual maintenance cost ($)||6,515||191,196||-184,681|
|Annual electricity cost ($)||64,921||336,250||-271,329|
|Annual reagent cost ($)||4,000||494,494||-490,494|
|Annual catalyst replacement cost ($)||0||87,938||-87,938|
|Annual indirect costs ($)||153,082||3,084,370||-2,931,288|
|Administrative charges ($)||7,578||2,294||5,284|
|Capital recovery ($)||145,504||3,082,076||-2,936,572|
|Total annual costs ($)||228,518||4,194,248||-3,965,730|
|NOx removed /year (ton)||1340||1340||0|
|Cost of NOx removal ($/ton)||177||3,130||-2,959|
3. HDP provides a complete solution
HDP arrays can remove carbon dioxide, along with nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide at low costs. HDP arrays can deliver significant savings on per ton bases. Table 3 shows the comparison of costs of removing nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide using HDP arrays to costs of removing nitrogen oxides using SCR.
|Removal of sulfur oxide||yes||No|
|Removal of nitrogen oxides||Yes||Yes|
|Removal of carbon dioxide||Yes||No|
|Total Capital Investment (TCI) ($)||30,096,180||38,239,160||-8,142,980|
|Annual direct costs ($)||3,310,093||1,109,878||2,200,215|
|Annual maintenance cost ($)||150,481||191,196||-40,715|
|Annual electricity cost ($)||2,995,152||336,250||2,658,902|
|Annual reagent cost ($)||164,460||494,494||-330,034|
|Annual catalyst replacement cost ($)||0||87,938||-87,938|
|Annual indirect costs ($)||2,404,055||3,084,370||-680,315|
|Administrative charges ($)||61,806||2,294||59,512|
|Capital recovery ($)||2,342,249||3,082,076||-739,827|
|Total annual costs ($)||5,714,148||4,194,248||1,519,900|
|CO2/NOx removed /year (ton)||2,567,273||1340||2,565,933|
|Cost of CO2/NOx removal ($/ton)||2||3,130||-3,128|
4. HDP protects the environment
HDP operates at normal conditions without chemicals where SCR may cause significant
environmental impacts. The detailed comparison is given in Table 4.
|Pollutant gas leaking||No||10% nitrogen oxides|
|Chemical leaking||No||2% ammonia|
|Chemical hazardous||No||Corrosive bases|
|Secondary impact||No||Hydrogen and ammonia production|
|Useful product||Algal biomass||No|
Problems: Nobel laureate Sir Alexander Fleming had warned in 1945 after being rewarded a Nobel Prize for his discovery of antibiotics that misuse of antibiotics could result in selection for resistant bacteria. His prediction was confirmed within 10 years of the wide scale introduction of penicillin. Today, antibiotic resistant bacteria present very serious problems to the world.So serious, United Nation just held the General Assembly to urge international leaders to launch an coordinated efforts to monitor the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and reduce the misuse of antimicrobial agents in human and veterinary health and agriculture. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become a massive health problem worldwide, killing 700,000 people every year. In the United States alone, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria cause more than 2 million infections and 23,000 deaths each year, resulting in an estimated $20 billion in excess medical spending. Since the first antibiotic Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928, there are more than 100 compounds found. But no new class of antibiotics has been found since 1987. Antibiotics work well so far but any good antibiotics will have the resistant problems eventually. Unless new antibiotics are discovered faster than resistant bacteria produced, antibiotics resistant bacteria will be presenting threats to the world.
Solutions: A bacteriophage is a virus specifically infecting a few species of bacteria, using the bacterial biological system to reproduce new viral particles. Experts estimate there are six different types of bacteriophages for every bacterium strain. Since some bacteriophages need to break bacterial cells in order to release the new generation of the bacteriophage, it is theoretically feasible to use bacteriophage to control bacteria. In part of eastern Europe, bacteriophage therapy is a proved method to treat infections in clinics and hospitals. QIZHONG LABS has the expertise to design bacteriophage projects and carry out the procedures to isolate bacteriophages and apply bacteriophages to prevent bacterium related infections.
Problems: Most algae blooms underline the nutrient (particularly phosphorus and nitrogen) pollution problems in the body of water. The excess algal biomass after the bloom will be degraded and lead to the fast growth of a second wave of micro-organism, usually aerobic bacteria. The growth of bacteria depletes the soluble oxygen in water, and suffocates other organisms, such as fish, eventually themselves. The degradation process continues and the organic matters released from the process are consumed by anaerobic bacteria, resulting in distinct smells and black color of water body. The process is called eutrophication. Eutrophication makes an eco-system uninhabitable for aquatic lives, including algae, plants as well as animals. Eutrophication is a natural, slow-aging process for a water body, but human activity greatly speeds up the process. It appears that every lake and river will eventually enter into an eutrophication process and the process will be repeated in the body of water every year once it started.