Consulting Services

QIZHONG LABS provides consulting services in the following three areas. We have deep understanding to the problems in these areas and can offer expertise to design the systems and provide the equipment for projects. Should you have any question, please do not hesitate to contact us. Thank you!

Gaseous Pollutant Capture

Problems: Carbon dioxide released from Power plants accounts for more than half of the total carbon dioxide emission in the past. Coal-fired power plants also emit sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. The first two are responsible for acid_rain and smog while the third is the cause of global climate change. Current technology requires three separated systems to remove the gases from the flue gas individually, a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system for sulfur dioxide, a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Unit for nitrogen oxides and Carbon capture and storage (CCS) for carbon dioxide. To operate all three systems at the same time, a power plant might have to cut down its power output by as much as 25%. In addition, the current technology use chemicals to react with those pollutant gases to produce side tproducts. The chemicals and the side products are stored on site which can take up even more space and other resources. Technically, to complete remove the pollutant gases, the molar ratios of chemicals to pollutant gases have to be 1 . Greater than 1 will generate secondary pollution, while less than 1 will result in incomplete removal of the pollutant gases.

Solutions: QIZHONGLABS has developed an algae cultivation system to grow algae on industrial scales. The new system consists of arrays of High Density Photobioreactors (HDP) and offers many advantages over current chemical based systems. Four of them are given as follows.

1. HDP arrays can replace multiple systems

The comparison of current technology with HDP arrays is given in Table 1.

Table 1. HDP and the current technology
Pollutants To Be Removed Current Technology New Technology
Sulfur Oxide Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) High Density Photobioreactor Arrays
Nitrogen Oxides Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)
Carbon Dioxide Carbon capture

2. HDP is more cost-effective than selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system

Table 2 shows the comparison of the cost to remove nitrogen oxides using HDP arrays and SCR in an example power plant.

Table 2. The estimated costs to remove nitrogen oxides
Features HDP system SCR system HDP-SCR
Reaction conditions Natural Hazardous Substantial
Equipment Simple Complex Substantial
Reaction efficiency High Low Substantial
Useful by-products Algal Biomass No Useful
Environmental impact No 2% Ammonia leakage Helpful
Technology New Old Substantial
Nitrogen removal (%) 100 90 10
Total Capital Investment (TCI) ($) 1,303,000 38,239,160 -36,936,160
Annual direct costs ($) 75,436 1,109,878 -1,034,442
Annual maintenance cost ($) 6,515 191,196 -184,681
Annual electricity cost ($) 64,921 336,250 -271,329
Annual reagent cost ($) 4,000 494,494 -490,494
Annual catalyst replacement cost ($) 0 87,938 -87,938
Annual indirect costs ($) 153,082 3,084,370 -2,931,288
Administrative charges ($) 7,578 2,294 5,284
Capital recovery ($) 145,504 3,082,076 -2,936,572
Total annual costs ($) 228,518 4,194,248 -3,965,730
NOx removed /year (ton) 1340 1340 0
Cost of NOx removal ($/ton) 177 3,130 -2,959

3. HDP provides a complete solution

HDP arrays can remove carbon dioxide, along with nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide at low costs. HDP arrays can deliver significant savings on per ton bases. Table 3 shows the comparison of costs of removing nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide using HDP arrays to costs of removing nitrogen oxides using SCR.

Table 3. The per-ton-gas costs of HDP arrays and SCR
Features HDP Arrays SCR HDP-SCR
HDP units 8223 1
Removal of sulfur oxide yes No
Removal of nitrogen oxides Yes Yes
Removal of carbon dioxide Yes No
Total Capital Investment (TCI) ($) 30,096,180 38,239,160 -8,142,980
Annual direct costs ($) 3,310,093 1,109,878 2,200,215
Annual maintenance cost ($) 150,481 191,196 -40,715
Annual electricity cost ($) 2,995,152 336,250 2,658,902
Annual reagent cost ($) 164,460 494,494 -330,034
Annual catalyst replacement cost ($) 0 87,938 -87,938
Annual indirect costs ($) 2,404,055 3,084,370 -680,315
Administrative charges ($) 61,806 2,294 59,512
Capital recovery ($) 2,342,249 3,082,076 -739,827
Total annual costs ($) 5,714,148 4,194,248 1,519,900
CO2/NOx removed /year (ton) 2,567,273 1340 2,565,933
Cost of CO2/NOx removal ($/ton) 2 3,130 -3,128

4. HDP protects the environment

HDP operates at normal conditions without chemicals where SCR may cause significant
environmental impacts. The detailed comparison is given in Table 4.

Table 4. Environmental impact of HDP arrays and SCR
Observation HDP arrays SCR
Pollutant gas leaking No 10% nitrogen oxides
Chemical leaking No 2% ammonia
High temperatures No Yes
Chemical hazardous No Corrosive bases
Secondary impact No Hydrogen and ammonia production
Useful product Algal biomass No
Protection from Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

Problems: Nobel laureate Sir Alexander Fleming had warned in 1945 after being rewarded a Nobel Prize for his discovery of antibiotics that misuse of antibiotics could result in selection for resistant bacteria. His prediction was confirmed within 10 years of the wide scale introduction of penicillin. Today, antibiotic resistant bacteria present very serious problems to the world.So serious, United Nation just held the General Assembly to urge international leaders to launch an coordinated efforts to monitor the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and reduce the misuse of antimicrobial agents in human and veterinary health and agriculture. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become a massive health problem worldwide, killing 700,000 people every year. In the United States alone, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria cause more than 2 million infections and 23,000 deaths each year, resulting in an estimated $20 billion in excess medical spending. Since the first antibiotic Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928, there are more than 100 compounds found. But no new class of antibiotics has been found since 1987. Antibiotics work well so far but any good antibiotics will have the resistant problems eventually. Unless new antibiotics are discovered faster than resistant bacteria produced, antibiotics resistant bacteria will be presenting threats to the world.

Solutions: A bacteriophage is a virus specifically infecting a few species of bacteria, using the bacterial biological system to reproduce new viral particles. Experts estimate there are six different types of bacteriophages for every bacterium strain. Since some bacteriophages need to break bacterial cells in order to release the new generation of the bacteriophage, it is theoretically feasible to use bacteriophage to control bacteria. In part of eastern Europe, bacteriophage therapy is a proved method to treat infections in clinics and hospitals. QIZHONG LABS has the expertise to design bacteriophage projects and carry out the procedures to isolate bacteriophages and apply bacteriophages to prevent bacterium related infections.

Algae Blooms

Problems: Most algae blooms underline the nutrient (particularly phosphorus and nitrogen) pollution problems in the body of water. The excess algal biomass after the bloom will be degraded and lead to the fast growth of a second wave of micro-organism, usually aerobic bacteria. The growth of bacteria depletes the soluble oxygen in water, and suffocates other organisms, such as fish, eventually themselves. The degradation process continues and the organic matters released from the process are consumed by anaerobic bacteria, resulting in distinct smells and black color of water body. The process is called eutrophication. Eutrophication makes an eco-system uninhabitable for aquatic lives, including algae, plants as well as animals. Eutrophication is a natural, slow-aging process for a water body, but human activity greatly speeds up the process. It appears that every lake and river will eventually enter into an eutrophication process and the process will be repeated in the body of water every year once it started.